See also the WHO’s timeline for the pandemic.
I estimated the approval dates in the section above based on the Pfizer and Moderna timelines or I found an official giving an estimate:
- 2020 Jan 11: COVID-19 gene sequence delivered to WHO.
- 2020 Feb 24: Moderna starts Phase 1 trial.
- 2020 July 27: Pfizer and Moderna Phase 3 trials started
- 2020 Nov 9: Pfizer announced their 95% prelim result
- 2020 Nov 18: Pfizer Phase 3 concluded
- 2020 Nov 20: Pfizer submits application to US FDA
- 2020 Nov 30: Novavax starts Phase 3 trials
- 2020 Nov 30: Moderna announced prelim results
- 2020 Dec 2: Moderna submits application to US FDA
- 2020 Dec 9: Pfizer EUA approved in Canada (135 days from start of Ph3, 19 days after US FDA submission)
- 2020 Dec 11: Pfizer EUA approved by FDA in USA
- 2020 Dec 19: Moderna EUA approved by FDA in USA
- 2020 Dec 23: Moderna approved in Canada (149 days from start of Ph3, 21 days after the US FDA submission)
- 2021 Jan 28: Novavax interim results
- 2021 Jan 29: Janssen interim results
- 2021 Feb 4: Janssen submits application to US FDA
- 2021 Feb 26: Canada approves AstraZeneca
- 2021 Feb 27: Janssen EUA approved by FDA in USA.
- 2021 Mar 5: Janssen approved in Canada
- 2021 Mar 11: Sanofi Ph2 trials started
- 2021 Mar 12: Novavax Ph3 trials in UK, South Africa done
- 2021 March 16: Medicago starts Ph3 trials
- 2021 Mar 16: Moderna doses the first children in study of under-12s.
- 2021 Apr 9: Pfizer submits application to US FDA for 12-15 year-olds
- 2021 May 5: Pfizer approved in Canada for 12-15 year-olds.
- 2021 May 10: Pfizer approved in the US for 12-15 year-olds.
- 2021 June 14: Novavax says that they really are done with Ph3.
- 2021 June 16: CureVac announces crappy Ph3 results.
- 2021 June 8: Pfizer announces that it’s about to start trial in children under 12.
- 2021 July 3: Pfizer announces a Phase 2 trial for a vax adapted for the Beta variant.
- 2021 September 1: Moderna asks the US FDA to approve its booster.
- 2021 September 10: Canada’s NACI recommends third dose mRNA for the immunocompromisedx.
- 2021 September 20: Pfizer announces that they have finished their trial for 5-12 year-olds.
- 2021 September 20: NDV-HXP-S, the Thai version of the HexaPro vaccine, finished Phase 1/2 with good results.
- 2021 September 21: The Washington University of St. Louis/Bharat Biotech nasal vaccine moves to Ph2/3.
- 2021 September 22: Clover announces good Ph3 results.
- 2021 September 23: US FDA approves booster for Pfizer.
- 2021 September 23: Novavax (and SII, who will manufacture it) says they are applying for approval from the World Health Organization.
- 2021 September 28: Pfizer submits preliminary data for 5-12 year-olds to the US FDA.
- 2021 September 28: Sanofi abandons its COVID-19 vax to focus on flu, COVID boosters.
- 2021 September 28: Canada’s NACI recommends third dose mRNA for the elderly.
- 2021 October 7: Pfizer requests that the US FDA approve its pediatric vaccination.
- 2021 October 6: Moderna asks Health Canada to approve its booster.
- 2021 October 7: Johnson & Johnson requests that the US FDA approve a booster.
- 2021 October 11: Novavax issues a preprint with their results. (So maybe they really are done with Phase 3 this time?)
- 2021 October 12: CureVac says they are abandoning their COVID-19 vaccine approval process and will focus on a second-gen product.
- 2021 October 15: Pfizer/BioNTech submit application to Health Canada for pediatric vaccine.
- 2021 October 18: Valneva announces good Ph3 results.
- 2021 October 21: CDC approves Moderna and J&J’s boosters.
- 2021 October 26: The FDA approves Pfizer’s pediatric vaccine.
- 2021 October 29: Canada’s NACI recommends mRNA booster for those who did not get mRNA.
- 2021 November 2: The CDC approves Pfizer’s pediatric vaccine.
- 2021 November 3: The World Health Organization approves Covaxin.
- 2021 November 9: Health Canada approves the regular (not lower dose) Comirnaty as an adult booster.
- 2021 November 18: Philippines grants emergency-use authorization to Novavax.
- 2021 November 19: Health Canada approves Pfizer’s pediatric vaccine.
- 2021 November 19: US FDA advisory board endorsed Pfizer or Moderna boosters for all adults.
- 2021 November 30: The Vietnamese gave up on the NDV-HXP-S trials because they had too much trouble finding volunteers.
- 2021 Dec 7: Medicago announces Ph3 results.
- 2021 Dec 10: US FDA approves Pfizer booster for 16 and 17 year-olds.
- 2021 Dec 17: World Health Organization approves Covovax, the version of Novavax made by Serum Institute of India (which means that COVAX can start distributing it).
- 2021 Dec 17: Pfizer’s vaccine for 2 to 5 year-olds didn’t provide adequate protection with two doses.
- 2021 Dec 20: EU gives conditional use approval to Novavax.
- 2021 Dec 27: India gives EUA to Corbevax and Covovax (SII’s Novavax).
- 2022 Jan 5: US CDC approves (and recommends) Pfizer booster for teens.
- 2022 Jan 12: Novavax approved in South Korea.
- 2022 Jan 19: Novavax granted provisional approval in Australia.
- 2022 Ja 25: NACI recommends that Canadian children 5-11 years old should get vaccinated; immunocompromised kids should get a booster.
(NB: I include the US’ FDA approval times because times are similar to the Canadian approval times.) It took ~4.5 months for Pfizer’s COVID vaccine and 5 months for Moderna from start to finish of the trial. Note that is really fast for a clinical trial, and was possible only because there were so many cases of COVID-19. (The faster people get sick, the faster you can see a difference between the control group and the vaccine group.) Subsequent trials might actually be faster because there is even more transmission.
The Providence Therapeutics might get through its vaccine trials quickly, but
- They are a new company bringing up a new factory, so even if their vaccine gets approved as quickly as Moderna and Pfizer got theirs approved, I’m guessing that they would not be able to pump out high volumes of vaccine right away.
- They might face some challenges doing their stage 3 trial because by the time they are ready to go to Phase 3 trials, many people in developed countries (i.e. ones where doing vaccine studies is easy) will have been vaccinated already.
|Brand||Ph3 start||Interim results||Ph3 end||Approved (est)|
|AstraZeneca / Oxford||2020-08-23 ||various||2021-02-26|
|Novavax||2020-11-30||2021-01-28 ||2021-03-12, 2021-06-14|
See also the New York Times’ vaccine tracker for good information on all the vaccines which have gotten at least to Phase 1 human trials.
Hilda Bastain has a very in-depth look at all the vaccine trial results.